The powerful British East India trade company were used to a dominant position elsewhere in the world and wanted to break what they saw as a trade imbalance so they began illegal opium imports from India into Canton.
The trajectories of Yuanmingyuan spoils in Britain, and challenges for curators handling this material today.
He continued traveling as far as Guizhou in China, before settling in Hanoi, where he declared himself a publicist.
Imagine that you are a conscript, from a rural improvised countryside town of a war-ravaged country.
Immortals, dragons, magpies, monkeys and bats populate this pioneering book on Chinese jewellery of the late 19th to early 20th century.
The Photographs of William Saunders features a selection of 35 to 40 original 19th-century albumen silver prints, many hand-coloured, by William Saunders from the Stephan Loewentheil Historical Photography of China Collection.